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International Cycling History Conference — 2014
Maryland Historical Society, 201 West Monument Street, Baltimore, Maryland                ©2014-2016 ICHC

Outline of Program for the 25th (2014) ICHC in Baltimore, Maryland, USA (See Notes A – D below)

Day 0 (Wednesday, August 6, 2014) — International Cycle History Conference

4:00 PM – 6:00 PM Registration & Reception Maryland Historical Society (MDHS)
Evening Free Time Baltimore

Day 1 (Thursday, August 7, 2014)

8:30 AM (all day) Registration & Information MDHS
9:00 AM – 9:30 AM Opening of the 25th ICHC MDHS
9:30 AM – 11:00 AM Papers 1– 3 MDHS
11:00 AM – 11:30 AM Coffee* MDHS
11:30 AM – 1:00 PM Papers 4 – 6 MDHS
1:00 PM – 2:00 PM Lunch Baltimore
2:00 PM – 4:00 PM Papers 7 – 10 MDHS
4:00 PM – 6:00 PM Coffee* and " Show & Tell" MDHS
6:00 PM – 7:00 PM Demonstration of High Wheel Riding Skills MDHS: Open area in front of building
7:00 PM – 9:00 PM Ride around Baltimore guided by local bicycle clubs. (Optional) Baltimore (some bicycles available for loan)

Day 2 (Friday, August 8, 2014)

8:30 AM – 9:30 AM Papers 11 – 12 MDHS
9:30 AM – 10:25 AM Coffee* and Walk to the Penn Station* (about 0.9 miles) MDHS & Penn Station
10:25 AM – 11:20 PM Train ride to Washington, DC* MARC Commuter Train*
11:20 PM – 1:30 PM Walk to U.S. Library of Congress and Lunch in the Library Cafeteria About 0.8 miles in Washington, DC
1:30 PM – 3:00 PM U.S. Library of Congress: Researchers' Orientation and Presentation of Bicycle-Related Materials from the Collection U.S. Library of Congress: Conference Room
3:00 PM – 3:30 PM Walk to National Air & Space Museum (NASM) About 0.8 miles in Washington, DC
3:30 PM – 4:30 PM Presentation on Bicycles Stored in the Collection of the National Museum of American History National Museum of Air & Space: Conference Room
4:30 PM – 5:30 PM Presentation on the Wright Brothers' Bicycle and Pedal-Powered Aircraft National Museum of Air & Space: Exhibits
5:30 PM End of Day: Return to Baltimore by Commuter Train* directly, or stay in DC for dinner and then return to Baltimore. Walk to Union Station, about 1.2 miles. Can use the MARC Commuter Train*

Day 3 (End of International Cycle History Conference) (Saturday, August 9, 2014)

8:15 AM (all day) Registration & Information MDHS
8:15 AM – 9:45AM Papers 13 – 15 MDHS
9:45 AM – 10:15 AM Coffee* MDHS
10:45 AM – 12:15 PM Papers 16 – 19 MDHS
12:15 PM – 1:30 PM Lunch Baltimore
1:30 PM – 3:00PM Papers 20 – 22 MDHS
3:00 PM – 3:30PM Coffee* MDHS
3:30PM – 4:30 PM Papers 23 – 25 MDHS
4:30PM – 5:00 PM Business Meeting MDHS
5:00 PM – 6:00 PM Free Time Baltimore
6:00 PM – 9:00 PM Dinner with a preceding Cocktail Hour* Wyndows on Baltimore Room in the Wyndham Peabody Court Hotel

Day 4 (Optional/Extra Day) (See Note D below) (Sunday, August 10, 2014)

9:00 AM – 10:00 AM Commute to Washington, DC Public Transport or personal conveyance
10:00 AM – 12:30 PM Bicycle Tour of DC Part I (about 8 miles): Points of Primary Interest to Bicycle Historians Using Personal and Rental Bikes
12:30 PM – 1:30 PM Lunch Stop  
1:30 PM – 3:30 PM Bicycle Tour of DC Part 2 (about 2 or 15 miles): Extension of the Bicycle Tour to see more of DC area. Using Personal and Rental Bikes
3:30 PM – Whenever End of Day: Return to Baltimore or depart for home. Public Transport or personal conveyance

Note A: MDHS stands for the Maryland Historical Society located at 201 West Monument Street, Baltimore, MD 21201.
Note B: All items marked with asterisk (*) are included in the Registration Fee.
Note C: All lodging fees during the conference are to be paid by the participants.
Note D: All costs in cluding public transport, bicycle rental fees, lunch, etc. are to be paid by the participants as the costs is incurred.


Presentations for the 25th
International Cycling History Conference


# Presentor Home Institutional Affiliation or Specialty Title of Paper
 
1 Siple, Greg Misoula, MT, USA Adventure Cycling Association The Bikecentennial Summer of 1976
In the summer of 1976, the year of the American Bicentennial celebration, four thousand cyclists rode all or part of the Transamerica Bicycle Trail from Oregon to Virginia in what can credibly be called the biggest cycling event in American history.

I intend to tell the story of that event, Bikecentennial. Who were these cyclists? What was their experience as they rode in east and westbound groups of 10 and 12 riders?

The other story I want to tell is how this grand event came to be. It grew from a simple idea brought up “around the campfire” in 1973 to an event known to millions of Americans that helped bring recreational cycling into the mainstream. What occurred during that three-year period between its conception and the day the first group of cyclists left Yorktown, Virginia, headed for Astoria, Oregon? How did a ragtag group of underpaid staff and volunteers design and map a route, write guidebooks, train hundreds of leaders, and arrange overnight locations in such a short time on a shoestring budget?

I am in a unique position to tell this story because I have access to the Bikecentennial archive of documents, written accounts and photographs, and I am one of the four founders of Bikecentennial.

2 Jamieson, Duncan Ashland, OH, USA Ashland University The Vibrant Bicycle
In 1937 Martin Buber’s I and Thou first appeared in English, seventy-three years before Jane Bennett’s Vibrant Matter; both books discuss the world as a binary construct. Buber, a Jewish theologian, argues that humans can interact with an other through either experience or encounter. In the former the individual observes the other, gathering and analyzing data to create a theory. In this scenario the individual, the “I,” turns the other into an object, creating Buber’s I-It relationship. In an encounter, humans create a personal connection to an other in which both are changed, affected. Here the other is not used, making this an I-Thou relationship. Bennett, a political philosopher, defines the binary as dull matter versus vibrant life. In addition to a long list of philosophers who consider this binary, she contends as children we lived in a vital world populated with animated, rather than passive, objects. Consider Bill Watterson’s cartoon, “Calvin and Hobbes,” in which Calvin sees his stuffed tiger, Hobbes, and his bicycle as animated beings, whereas adults see them as passive objects. Compare this with an automobile trip in which the objective is to move from Point A to Point B, separated from the intervening space in an climate controlled steel cage, as opposed to a bicycle journey where the intervening miles are as vital as the destination. As a device to carry us with no connection to the environment through which we travel, the automobile represents dull matter, or an I-It relationship, while the bicycle, which forces its rider to experience the sights and smells, equals vibrant life, or an I-Thou relationship. There are myriad examples of this in the literature of bicycle journeying, from the early days when Frank Lenz vowed, if necessary, to carry his Victor as it carried him, a vow similar to the one Fred Birchmore made fifty years later. In those early days H. Darwin McIlrath’s relationship with his bicycle was personal enough that he named it “Old Rodney,” in the same sense that Bernard Newman and later Dervla Murphy named each of their bicycles.

This paper examines the long distance bicycle journeyer in light of both Buber and Bennett. Specifically, how and why is the bicycle journeyer’s relationship to the wheel an I-Thou rather than an I-It relationship, and how is the bicycle vibrant, rather than dull, matter?

3 McCullough, Robert L. Burlington, VT, USA University of Vermont Cycling's 19th Century Path Finders
This paper summarizes three principal historical contexts for bicycle paths built during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in America: (1) the spontaneous efforts by bicycle clubs and club associations such as wheelway leagues to pursue country riding; (2) New York’s legislatively governed sidepath campaign, which grows to dominate path building during the 1890s and spreads to many other parts of the country; and (3) paths constructed by park commissions in parks and along parkways. Each context begins during the high-wheel era and develops into maturity during the safety bicycle era.

Examples from each of the three contexts include, in the first category: (1) the Wilkes Barre-Kingston-Wyoming path (1886) and the Hazleton-Eckley path (1898) in Luzerne County, Pennsylvania; the Binghamton-Union path in Broome County, New York (1887); the Charlotte Turnpike path in Monroe County, New York (1888); and the DeGraff path in Amsterdam, Montgomery County, New York (1893),

In the second, encompassing more than two-thousand miles of sidepaths in New York State alone, the Lockport-Olcott path in Niagara County (1892); the Scottsville-Rochester path in Monroe County (1896); the New Hartford paths in Oneida County (1896); and the Albany-Schenectady Path (1895) are noteworthy.

Among paths constructed by park commissioners, Brooklyn’s Coney Island paths are well known (1895 and 1896), but are preceded by Cleveland’s Doan Brookway path proposed by landscape architect Ernest Bowditch (1886). Brooklyn’s paths are also developed contemporaneously with plans for paths in Buffalo’s Delaware Park and along several of that city’s parkways. The role of the Olmsted firm in discouraging plans for separate bicycle paths in parks in several cities is assessed, and John Charles Olmsted’s plan for a perimeter path in Louisville’s Iroquois Park becomes a landmark in that context.

Several other paths outside these three contexts deserve mention, including the Broad Ripple path along the White River Canal in Indianapolis (1898); the Old Croton Aqueduct Path in Van Cortlandt Park (1895); the Great Falls Cycle Path near Washington, D.C. (1899); the Williamsburg Bridge path in New York (1903); and paths developed in New York by Robert Moses shortly before World War II.

Three themes tie these contexts together: the valiant, grass-roots efforts of cyclists to build networks of bicycle paths during the 1880s and 1890s; the century old struggle, today unresolved in America, to establish a viable place for bicycles as a means of transportation; and the creative efforts by 19th century cyclists to resolve that challenge, among them the attempts to develop alliances with trolley-car companies.

4 Allen, John S. Boston, Massachusetts, USA Bicycle Advocate A Social History of Massachusetts Bicycle Law
Boston, Massachusetts was central to bicycling in the USA in the 19th Century: the home of Pierre Lallement, patent holder on the pedal bicycle; of the Pope Manufacturing Company, manufacturer of Columbia bicycles, and of the League of American Wheelmen. Boston and eastern Massachusetts have had relatively strong bicycling activity compared with most other American metropolitan areas, due in part to their early settlement, which led to a diversity of urban and rural routes, and also to the many institutions of higher education and large student population.

Massachusetts bicycle law has passed through three distinct eras, corresponding roughly to the 1890s bike boom, the displacement of bicycling by motoring, and a revival starting with the bike boom of the early 1970s. Changes in bicycle law also reflected the evolution of bicycle equipment.

5 Guroff, Margaret Washington, DC, USA Johns Hopkins University Kid Stuff: The Bicycle and American Youth
6 Santos, Ana Lisbon, Portugal CIES-IUL, FMH-UL How Cycling Museums Built Forms of Identity
This paper, first, looks at how cycling became heritage, what is considered cycling heritage and how this heritage is preserved in three distinct cases:

1. The Museu de Ciclismo das Caldas da Rainha, that is supposed to be the official storyteller of the Portuguese cycling but, since ever, its exhibitions functioning as a top-down imposition of curator voice, that is more fictive than factual.

2. At home, Francisco Araújo, the mechanic of Joaquim Agostinho, has a small Museum - that remember us the Innocence Museum of Omar Pamuk - a small and intimate museum that tells the history of Agostinho and himself. He has a self-contained world that has been reduced to a miniature scale, at least, compared with the multidimensional facts that Araújo remember.

3. The Joaquim Agostinho Museum that still is now conceived and designed in every detail. The conception of the space provides perhaps a combination of both object-based and media-based exhibits which, together, work to recount the events related with champion participation as well as about the Portuguese cycling competition. The conception of this museum embraced the micro-narratives of multiple personal histories, engaging in a bottom-up telling tales. To achieve this objective the Municipality started three years ago doing research in archives and collecting histories about Joaquim Agostinho.

The main questions of this paper are: what are the potential limitations or multiple manifestations of each narrative (architecture, design, digital media, interiors and graphic design, literature and art)? How cycling museums built forms of identity? How these three museums generate narratives about Portuguese cycling?
7 Forbes, Vernon   Former Editor of Human Power Planes, Trains and Bicycle Wheels: The Unlikely Development of the Tension-Spoke Wheel
From its unlikely beginnings as aircraft landing gear in 1808 to its being chosen to represent the triumph of the Industrial Revolution in the ferris wheel at the 1893 Chicago World's Fair this paper reviews a number of competing claims of priority in the development of the tension-spoke wheel on the way. Evidence will be reviewed from diaries, newspaper reports, patent records and court challenges. Strategies for how to search both foreign and US patent office records will be presented.

8 Morris, Christopher, & McKenty, John Vancouver, BC, & Perth, ON, Canada Bicycle Dealers, Amateur historians The 1936 CCM Flyte – Canada’s contribution to the Streamlined Decade
The 1936 CCM Flyte is set in the context of the Streamlined decade: a time when North American industrial designers styled many things - from toasters to steam locomotives - as if they wanted to fly. The Flyte had a large impact on the public in the short five years it was in production, despite relatively modest sales figures.

The unusual elliptic frame and C-section front forks are described and explained. The Flyte concept was very different from the path chosen by other Streamlined bicycle manufacturers in in North America. It was also the only bicycle Canada Cycle and Motor sought to patent in its 84-year manufacturing history in Toronto.

CCM’s track racing background, which contributed to some of the unique running gear features used on the Flyte, is also reviewed.

Lastly, the illustrious career of the CCM Chief Engineer, Harvey Webb Peace (who tragically died at the end of the first year of Flyte production) is discussed.
9 Clayton, Nicholas Alderly Edge, Cheshire, UK Former editor of the Boneshaker, ICHC Founder On the Origins of the Diamond Frame
Since the eighteen-nineties, the braced diamond frame has provided the backbone for the vast majority of bicycles, becoming so ubiquitous as to be seldom remarked upon. It is still often referred to as the ‘Humber pattern’, but this paper will look at the evolution of the diamond frame and restore the crown to its rightful owner.

10 Still, Julie New Brunswick, NJ, USA Rutgers University The Philadelphia Inquirer Bike Route Narratives
11 Sterba, Robert Czeck Republic Collector, Amateur Historian The Prototypes 1817-1895: Machines made as Individual Pieces or in Limited Series
The presentation shows 12 differant machines, 12 prototypes which were never mass-produced.

The presentation, which includes a lot of interesting pictures and high quality detailed photographs will present the following:

- An old French dresienne converted into a velociped using 90% of the original parts.

- Three velocipedes, two with different suspension systems, one with the wheels "SYSTEME LEROY" which was later very popular among the first cars, but wasn´t use for velocipedes anymore.

- One tricycle from the velocipede period with the lever driving system.

- Four prototype high wheels including a Clement prototype with combination three independant suspension systems, a high wheel with combination hand and foot driving, a high wheel Meyer prototype and a high wheel for two people sitting side by side on two complete bicycles connected by a tubes in the middle.

- Three hard tire safeties - all with different prototype of suspension wheels.

All of the machines are very interesting protopypes which till now haven´t been show to the public together.. Some of them were discovered recently and 99 % of collectors and experts have never seen them.

The proper history all machines and latest research will be presented quickly for each bicycle separately.
12 Finison, Lorenz J., and Karl S. Finison Needham, MA, and Augusta, ME, USA Health Consultants and Amateur Historians Pedal against Pollution: Massachusetts Cyclists Saddle Up for the Health of the Environment
On October 1, 1972, in the western Massachusetts city of Pittsfield, six year old Bonnie Harris climbed on the back seat of a tandem with its sprocket “welded up high enough to accommodate her first grade legs,” and set off with her father Chuck on a 138 mile three day “Pedal Against Pollution” (PAP) to Boston’s Government Center. For the last few hundred yards they were accompanied by Massachusetts Senator Edward Brooke, dressed in suit and tie. At the end, Bonnie hopped off the bike to shake his hand, and declared to the waiting press: “Cars are no good.”

Although small in the number of cyclists, the event was planned to have impact. How the tour came to be and what it represented in the history of Boston and cycling is a story to tell.

The history of bicycling has long been intertwined with discussions about health. What was new in the latter part of the 20th century was the claim that bicycling would help to heal the environment. Several key factors preceded the PAP, notably Earth Day, celebrated in the spring of 1970 all across the country, in over 10,000 high schools and 1,500 colleges. In the next two years, Earth Day and Earth Week activities were organized in Boston and around the nation. Bicycle sales soared.

Somehow, likely through the friendship between Senator Brooke and Dr. Paul Dudley White, a noted cardiologist, the PAP organizers in Brooke’s campaign office began to contact the bicycling community, making use of White’s Committee on Bicycle Safety. The Pedal Against Pollution had the hope that it would “generate strong public opinion for the creation of a state-wide system of bicycle paths.” Olympian racer John Allis led the ride and addressed “100-125 bicycling enthusiasts,” saying that they should “demand smooth and reasonably wide bike paths in urban and suburban areas.” He “expressed both a social and legal concern about cycling in terms of urban development. More and more bicycle paths could lead to less traffic congestion in the cities, for more people would commute to work by riding bicycles.”

The presentation will provide a basis for further investigation and discussion of the PAP and questions like: What are we to make of this confluence of powerful individuals and organizations promoting the cyclists’ cause, and riding a tide of support for a cleaner environment? What brought this perhaps unlikely coalition together? Was there opposition to the idea of pedaling against pollution? What were the larger forces at work? Why did the Republican Party eventually become downright hostile to bicycling having any part of the highway trust fund, a connection that the Massachusetts Republican establishment had promoted?
13 Norcliffe, Glen Kincardine, ON, Canada York University For a Geography of Cycling
14 Street, Roger T.C. Christchurch, Dorset, UK Museum Curator, Cycling Historian A Dozen Horses of the Coachmaker
Most people are aware that a number of Denis Johnson the London coachmaker’s machines have survived. This paper will for the first time illustrate and discuss all of the dozen surviving pedestrian hobby-horse made in the master’s workshop in the year 1819.

Helpfully, all but two are numbered with Roman numerals, allowing a largely chronological account. Items of particular interest are the only known surviving machine with ‘indirect’ steering, the smallest known adult hobby-horse discovered a few years ago in the Pitt Rivers Museum, Oxford, the two machines owned by the Duke of Northumberland, and two in The Netherlands and Denmark, the latter numbered 322 being the latest of the twelve. Of the two unnumbered machines, the more important is the lady’s pedestrian hobby-horse owned by the Science Museum, London, a unique survivor.
15 VanderPlas, Robert San Francisco, CA, USA Bicycle Mechanics, Publisher Illustrating the Bicycle and Its Technology
In his 2007 Conference Presentation “Pencil, Pen, and Print: the Graphic Image on the Age of the Cycle,” Scotford Lawrence draws attention to development of use of the graphic image in depicting the bicycle and its use in printed documents. The current proposal is to focus on one important type of such illustrations, namely technical illustrations depicting the construction and workings of the bicycle.

The presentation will give a brief summary of such illustrative development throughout the 19th and early 20th century, followed by a more detailed analysis of the work of the French illustrator Daniel Rebour, whose work was published widely to illustrate the bicycle and its components in the four decades after World War II.

This presentation will go beyond the brief overview of some of the work by Daniel Rebour that was presented by Raymond Henry at the 6th Conference, in Stellengbosch, and will include biographic information and an illustrated explanation of the technique used by Rebour to produce his images.
16 Oddy, Nicholas Glasgow, UK Glasgow School of Industrial Art, ICHC Founder Signing Off
In 1904, under the authority of The Motor Car Act, 1903, the British Local Government Board was charged with the design and implementation of state legislated road signs warning motorists of hazards such as corners and road junctions. The significance of this is that, for the first time, it shifted the responsibility for such signage from private interest groups to the state itself. The implications of this were far reaching in terms of the politics of road use and particularly to cyclists.

This paper stems from a larger research project that is to be published in a special issue of Technology & Culture in 2015. It focuses on the period from 1904-1921, a period in which the CTC withdrew from the erection of road signage, auto club signage proliferated and the government was forced to take an expanding role in road regulation and infrastructure. The paper aims to assess the effect the CTC’s decision to withdraw from road signage had on the perception of cycling on the roads of the early 20th century.
17 Musgrave, Lacar New Orleans, LA, USA University of New Orleans The Louisiana Cycling Club's "Spokes" Scrapbook: Victorianism and the Use of Mass Media Technology in New Orleans' Cycling Club Subculture
In the last two decades of the 19th century, cyclists in New Orleans organized formal clubs following the standards set out by Charles Pratt’s The American Bicycler. The membership of these clubs, the primary ones being the New Orleans Bicycle Club and the Louisiana Cycling Club, was drawn overwhelmingly from the area of the city upriver from Canal Street, considered historically to have been the physical dividing line between the old Creole society and the newer Anglo settlers that arrived after the Louisiana purchase and in larger numbers after the Civil War. The upriver settlements, while populated by Anglos, Creoles, and Irish, German, and Italian immigrants, were primarily Anglo suburbs born of Victorian cultural values, and the cycling clubs that formed in New Orleans in this period were essentially Victorian institutions.

The Louisiana Cycling Club, which operated between 1887 and 1891, kept a scrapbook, titled “Spokes,” that is housed at the Historic New Orleans Collection. The bulk of the scrapbook’s contents comprise hundreds of periodical clippings taken from local newspapers as well as local, regional, and national cycling magazines, including Bicycle South, the official organ of the Louisiana Division of the League of American Wheelmen. This self-selected collection of clippings, a large portion of which were authored by club members, reflects the LCC’s active engagement with mass media in the maintenance of a local cycling community that functioned as part of the national cycling community. As an historical object, the scrapbook provides evidence of the self-conscious construction of a group identity. This group, composed of both Anglo and non-Anglo members, functioned as an institution of Victorian culture in New Orleans while also engendering a subculture that employed counter-Victorian values and symbols. This paper will examine the use of mass media in developing this subculture and offer a clearer understanding of the nature and mechanisms of both cycling club culture and Victorian culture in New Orleans, the latter being a rich subject that has drawn little study by cultural historians.
18 Crouch, Tom D. Washington, DC, USA National Air & Space Museum From Bicycles to Human Powered Flight
Human beings first took to the sky aboard both hot air and hydrogen balloons in in the fall and winter of 1783. Realizing the dream of transforming these captives of the wind into truly navigable flying machines would require another century, however. The experimental airships powered by steam and electricity developed between 1852 and 1883 attracted considerable attention, but, with top speeds of less than ten miles per hour, were incapable of operating in even a light breeze. In the United States, a number of experimenters preferred a simpler approach, building and flying airships powered by pedals and hand cranks. The first of these was the “dirgicycle,” a one person airship featuring a barrel-shaped gas bag propelled by a hand-crank propeller. Patented in 1878 by the inventor, Charles Francis Ritchell, of Cory, PA, the craft was flown both indoors and outdoors in Philadelphia, Boston and Coney Island over the next several years. Carl Myers “Skycycles” were the best known of all the pedal-powered airships. Between 1879 and 1900, Myers and his wife Mary, who flew under the nom de l ’air of Carlotta, built and operated an indeterminate number of these single-seat craft. Perhaps the best known flight came on August 3, 1895, when an intrepid, and very athletic, reporter for the New York World pedaled a Skycycle from the Brooklyn Navy Yard across the East River and Manhattan to a landing in Yonkers. Arthur Barnard, Peter Campbell, James Allen and E.D. Hogan were among the others operating pedal-powered airships of their own design in the late 19th century. Fourteen year old Cromwell Dixon, of Columbus, Ohio, brought the era to a close with exhibitions of his pedal-powered lighter–than-air craft in the early years of the Twentieth Century.

19 Shields, Lorne Thornhill, ON, Canada Collector, Amateur Historian A Photographic History of Manumotive and Pedal Driven Tricycles
The use of the 3-wheeled tricycle was the logical precursor of any two-wheeled type velocipede. The Tricycle is a stable form of travel, which developed virtually simultaneously to the bicycle. Its form by definition is obviously different. We have the common knowledge to pick out most variants of the tricycle but rarely if ever have so many of the earliest forms of tricycle been seen together in contemporary photographs. The presentation will include both manumotive and pedal driven examples. Illustrations will include front and rear steering examples varying from singles, tandems, sociables, and more. These photos will be used to illustrate the history and development of the tricycle.
20 McQuirter, Marya Washington DC, USA   A Quartet of Cycling Girls in Bloomers: Black Women Cyclists and the Shaping of Modern Mobility
This paper is a cultural history of African American mobility in the late nineteenth and early 20th centuries. It maps an early history of black female mobility with my central subjects ordinary cyclists, most of whom are not well-known and some of whom remain nameless. This paper seeks to make these individual and collective wheelwomen legible in order to chart a history of black women cyclists. I have found ample evidence of black women and bicycles, starting in the 1880s, in newspapers, magazines, scrapbooks, photo albums, non-fiction, novels, memoirs, and short stories. In this presentation, I will share the images and other material that I have unearthed, much of which are rare.

This paper is not only recuperative. It is also a critique of the raced and gendered limits placed on black women's bodies by a range of social and political regimes in circulation post-Civil War. There is ample evidence in white minstrelsy, cartoons and sheet music of (representations of) black wheelwomen. White female and male cyclists, and cultural and political commentators, mimicked and ridiculed black women cyclists as unmodern, and therefore unable and unworthy of utilizing this new mobile technology. This paper, then, is also about the ways that ideas of raced and gendered bodies were mobilized, performed and challenged. It is about how the early history of cycling—indeed, the bicycle itself—was already embedded with race and gender meanings long before black women began to ride.
21 Sanderson, Gary W. Verona, NJ, USA Amateur Historian The Century Road Club and Its Context: The First 25 Years (1891-1916)
The Century Road Club of America (CRCofA) was formed in 1891 in Chicago, Illinois, for the purpose of promoting riding centuries defined as riding a bicycle 100 miles on public roads in one day. This Club was brought into being by R.G. Betts and William Herrick, two men who were heavily involved in the cycling scene in Chicago at that time and who were interested in riding centuries. The interest in riding centuries really started with the development of the high wheel bicycle which enabled person’s to travel 100 miles in one day on their own power, and this interest was growing rapidly in the early 1890s with the rapidly increasing popularity, and availability, of safety pneumatic-tired bicycles that brought many more people to the realm where they could dream of accomplishing this arduous feat. Several factors contributed to the CRCofA’s success, but the most important factor was the decision at the outset to award club pins to members who completed a century ride with pendant bars available for each subsequent century ridden. Wearing these pins and pendant century bars were a way to show your accomplishment, and they were highly esteemed and worn with pride. The CRCofA soon became the keeper of road records of all kinds which added to the importance of the Club. Contextual matters include (a) the movement to improve the generally poor roads in America, (b) attitudes toward women in America, (c) the ‘negro’ question, and (d) the coming of motorcycles and automobiles. All of the above matters will be elaborated on with the objective of explaining the role of this Club in American cycling history.
22 Kralik, Jan Prague, Czech Republic Collector, Amateur Historian Bicycle Roots of the Czech Republic's Skoda Auto
Why and how Václav Laurin and Václav Klement started their bicycle business in 1895 and how it became the largest motorcar enterprise in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In other words: Bicycle roots of Škoda Auto, part of the Volkswagen Group.
23 Williams, Carey Chicago, IL, USA Collector, Amateur Historian America Learns to Pedal, 1865-1870
America was quick to reconstruct the wounds of the Civil War, money and prosperity in the north would create an affluent middle class willing to embrace with a passion the new craze of cycling. The winter of 1868-1869 the Velocipede craze swiped the nation like wild fire with indoor rink riding. The coming of spring (1869) with the race to pedal outside quickly proved just how poor American roads were for cycling. Additionally the legal battles of patents and licensing gave the final blow to rid America of cycling till 1876. A year-by-year account of the events leading to "Velocipede craze" and it's quick vanishing act.

24 Herlihy, David V. Boston, MA, USA Historian, Author America's First Champ
Italian cycling historians have long known that an American teenager won their country’s first road race, from Florence to Pistoia, held on 2 February 1870. Until now, however, very little was known about him. The papers of the day said he was 16 years of age and the son of an American diplomat, but even those scant details had never been verified. That’s mainly because, for nearly 150 years, the Italian press gave his name incorrectly as Rynner Van Hest, effectively thwarting any effort to piece together he profile.

Some months ago, I began to search his trail, to little avail. Suddenly, I remembered that a collector friend of mine, Ed Berry Jr., had purchased the original winner’s certificate 15 years earlier at the annual antique bicycle auction in Copake, New York. Scrutinizing that document, I discovered that our first champion’s real name was Rynier Van Nest. From that point on, I was able to trace out his story. I will share my findings, which include a letter from Van Nest Sr. to Michaux, apparently ordering the velocipede his son would pedal to victory.


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